Restoration of books
and graphic work

The replacement of the work or repair it

The preservation of a deteriorated graphic work can be carried out through two distinct processes: its replacement or repair. Replacement is often an impossible task to carry out, leaving the repair of the work as the only option. This can go as far as a scratch on the binding to larger aesthetic problems which prevent the book from being used. The deterioration and value intrinsic to the work determine the treatment and levels of repair.

The activities relative to conservation and restoration can be classified as:


Preventative conservation:

Carrying out indirect actions to delay the deterioration and prevent risks of modifications, creating as such optimal conditions of preservation.

Conservation repair:

carrying out direct actions on the work for the purpose of delaying modification.


Actions carried out on the damaged or deteriorated work, with the purpose of making it easier to read, respecting, as far as possible, its historical, aesthetic and physical integrity.

The work must be observed as a single entity.

Restoration or direct action

Restoration or direct action implies modification, by adding, removing or altering the physical and/or chemical properties of the original materials. As well as the original characteristics of the work, other features have been naturally added over the course of time which form part of the work’s history. The work must be observed as a single entity; therefore the physical and aesthetic changes made as a result of treatment must be kept to a minimum, employing the principle of minimum intervention and always with suitable techniques.

The binding of a piece of work, to function as a structural aspect of itself, entails first and foremost protecting the content, and at the same time its aesthetic cover. The latter must only be replaced in cases of preservation, opting always for an appearance of equal or better quality, and being able to, if considered appropriate, conserve the original cover in an individual box.

Restored works

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